Ladder Safety

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Ladder Scaffolding Architecture Constructi

House repairs, lawn maintenance, cleaning the gutter, a fresh coat of paint or alter that bulb, somebody will reach for the ladder. Ladders are extremely useful but can be quite dangerous. Most ladders are covered with all these warnings and disclaimers which you can barely find the ladder itself.
Since a parachute or sky hook look out of the question, some simple security precautions could make a large difference in surviving your chores. Inspect your ladder for loose screws, cracked measures, opossum removal or old springs that are malfunctioning. Inspection and cleaning off sand or compounds after every use should be a normal routine. Keeping the ladder in a secure place out of this weather can help prolong the life and functioning of the ladder also.
Many accidents occur because of improper set up and usage of the ladder. Always set the ladder as close as possible to the job and on firm ground or floor. As soon as you’re up the ladder the additional weight can result in severe uncertainty and tilt. Examine the footing and make sure the hinges are fully extended and locked before you begin the ladder. Don’t use a ladder for a chair or extend beyond the normal warning areas. There are various ladders for technical jobs. Whenever you’re on the ladder or transferring the ladder , go slowly and carefully. Prime time for injuries are transferring tools or material when atop the ladder or transferring the ladder . Be conscious of your environment and co-workers before making the move.
Never over achieve when on the ladder however inconvenient it may appear to get down and reposition the ladder closer to the job. Getting help to steady the ladder when climbing or working might be necessary. Do not be shy or dashed about asking for assistance. A few thoughtful measures when using the ladder will keep your toes securely and securely planted on the floor.

Private ownership of a jet

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Gulfstream V, Aircraft, Flying, Jet

Private jets are really wonderful to experience, believe me… but the cost involved in acquiring one could be quite pricey. In terms of private jet price, depending on the make, model and size, to purchase one outright, you may be looking at spending between 5 and 65 million dollars. Not too terrible, if you are able to afford it. Now, while owning a private jet might appear to be the most convenient form of jet access, it may also be the most costly. And by expensive, I am not only talking about money here. Permit me to explain…

Owning a private jet may be a dream of yours, but if you are a mite jittery about choosing the massive private jet price in exchange for a little luxury, it could be pretty darned tricky to write out this very first check. Even when you’ve found private jets for sale at an auction, and picked up one for only a tiny few million, the continuing private jet price is the exact same, and without reduction.

However, with private jets, sale prices can fluctuate greatly. One of the things to consider when you buy a private jet is the variable of flying jet and range size, which may vary private jet price substantially. By way of instance, if you decided to buy a light jet, possibly a Learjet for instance, which can average at about $5 million or so to purchase, the airplane would transport between six to eight passengers, with approximately a 1,500 mile flight range without refueling. You will want to precisely understand what particular realm your needs live in, to be able to decide on the ideal make and model that is right for you. Charter a couple of short flights to get the feel for each significant type. You might discover moderate jets are more to your liking than light jets, like a Hawker 800, for instance.

Aircraft fractional ownership of a personal jet, sharing it with one co-investor, can provide increased travel flexibility at half of the price of sole ownership, however many aviation experts warn that aviation partnerships finally sour. Aircraft fractional ownership can begin in 1/16 of a share (San Antonio Wildlife Removal), which might be as low as approximately about $400,000, for instance, a Hawker for example. That generally allows for approximately 50 hours of flying time. This would equate to be approximately $8,000.00 per hour of flight – to a price per hour of flight basis, that’s not much less costly than a charter jet service in any respect. But aircraft fractional ownership hasn’t been simple – why? Perhaps you have experienced the frustrations of time-sharing a condominium? Yeah, that is why.

Additionally, you may be a 1/16 shareholder, but those who have 1/8 or 1/4 stocks are those whose needs are fulfilled, and only if they are not using it, then you can. All that having been said, fractional ownership can be economical, and is ideal for those companies or people who fly about 100-150 busy hours annually or more. Obviously, chartering a few flights to feel out which version suits you the best, does have the obvious benefits before contemplating buying one, whether it’s a complete or fractional purchase you are leading to.

Maybe the biggest problem is that while you may feel that aircraft sole possession or even aircraft fractional ownership may appear to be pricey (at least as much as the initial purchasing cost) than a charter jet service, the simple fact is that even if you have one, solely or in part, you will still wind up employing a charter jet service several times in addition to it all anyway. Quite often, your jet simply may not be available. It may be undergoing maintenance, it might be used by another (possibly”greater”) shareholder, it might be caused by any number of a massive collection of items, and additional (and possibly most cripplingly), it may simply not suit your precise needs at that moment.

Alright, let’s say you have a light jet, but you want to transport 12 passengers – are you really going to make two trips? That would be somewhat odd, to say the least. For a lot of reasons, even in the event that you shell out a few million for a private jet, or a couple of hundred-thousand for 1/16 of (and just 50 hours ) a private jet, you just will nevertheless automatically shell out more to a charter jet service, and on more than 1 occasion. Why chemical your flight expense?

Instead of all of the hassle, all of the maintenance, the down time, the innumerable regulations and expenses, as well as the more-than-occasional unavailability of aircraft ownership or aircraft fractional ownership, with leasing along with it all, it appears to make far more sense simply to rely on jet charter services independently. This holds true if you are an individual who would fly less than 150 hours annually, and even companies which would use more flight time.

Fundamentally, chartering represents less labour, less hassle and much less constraints – that last factor being the very important here. No restrictions are what we are searching for in the entire private jet adventure in the first place, right? When you charter a private jet, you may select from a fleet of models, sizes and kinds, and you can book a flight anytime you want, even within a tiny couple of hours, and hit over 5,000 airports rather than the under 500 airports of commercial airlines.

Private jet charter still lets you fly in privacy and safety, avoid delays at airports needing to remove shoes, unpack notebook computers and other personal things. If you use jet charter services, you are ready to fly the precise aircraft you would like. Let’s say you only want to fly alone or with 5-7 passengers, on a two hour flight… leasing a turboprop or a very light jet could cost a good deal less for this single flight than a Hawker 800 of your own in that exact same instance, or perhaps a 1/16 of one.

Most of all, you only pay for a single plane – the one that you need at this time, and whatever kind or version you would like. After all, you’ve got access to an entire fleet (a very prestigious idea, incidentally ), always at your disposal, and you do not share them with anyone except those you would like to bring with you on your journeys.

Myself, I am greedy – I do not want to need to manage, or wait for, any other shareholders’ consent (s) to fly my damned jet. I want the entire thing, and I need it now. I Would like a Learjet now and a Hawker tomorrow. I need 100% accessibility, right when I need it, and that is always now. Consider it… is not that what flying by private jet is truly all about?

So many services thrown in along with top-class flight, otherwise unrealized by people who don’t charter. It’s an excellent idea even in the event that you would like to obtain a jet outright, to try at least one version of each size jet, perhaps even a little Cessna turboprop. Try out a couple of short charter flights to be able to get the feel for what you need and want from a personal jet. You will also need to get used to using a charter jet service, because even should you buy a jet, you will still need them .

Modern Fighters

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Fighter Jet Fighter Aircraft Aircraft F 22

If you’re a fan of watching war movies or fantasy of joining the airforce, you must have seen yourself flying a jet fighter in the sky.

F/A-22 Raptor – This baby here will fly up in the sky and be almost unseen. It can out-fly and outrun every plane there’s. This makes each jet fighter built seem feeble as F/A-22 Raptor enters into the scene.

Eurofighter Typhoon – As the title itself suggestsit has more to offer than what meets the eye. It’s a multi-role fighter jet. It may perform ground attack missions and carry out air-to-air missions. Plus, there’s a naval version of the fighter plane also. This fighter jet was of excellent support to the air forces of these European countries: UK, Italy, Germany and Spain.

F-35 – This airplane is the newer version of F-16 and might replace it in another 10 years.

Dassault Rafale – This is just another European airplane that’s a multi-role fighter also has the same attributes as the Eurofighter Typhoon. What makes it different is that it’s French air-to-air missiles.

Su-27 Flanker – This airplane is thought to be one of the most feared fighter airplanes in Russia.

F-14D Tomcat – This airplane was synonymous to wine which aged so finely. This plane was designed to be able to provide protection to American carriers. But, it was also effective at long-range strikes and has also been used in the war against Libya.

This was exported widely and has attained a good fighting record.

F-15C Eagle – F-15C Eagle was regarded as among the few single-purpose planes on the market. It made plenty of history within only a period of 30 years and has gone with a total of 100+ kills with no losses.

JAS.39 Gripen – This airplane uses the F404 engine (turbofan) that is American. It may even do various missions like anti-shipping, point-defense interceptor and also ground strikes. Additionally it is quite easy to maneuver.

FA-18E/F Super Hornet – This airplane has almost no range limits and contains 2 additional weapons for pylons. This fighter plane was constructed based on proven designs. In addition, it has been used a tanker.

Next time, you see a war film wherein there are jet fighter airplanes flying, you now know which ones can out perform them in the skies.

Carriers in the World

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Aircraft Carrier Ships Battle Ships Usa Mi


A growing number of navies find aircraft carriers as viable platforms for projecting national power – now there are nine countries that have aircraft carriers in support: Brazil, France, India, Italy, Russia, Spain, Thailand, United Kingdom and the USA. It’s intriguing that the People’s Liberation Army – Naval (PLAN)- in China doesn’t yet really have a carrier in support, though this is expected to change in the not too distant future. The complete number of carriers in service globally is now twenty two, with half of the fleet being in US service. At least eight countries have new carriers in the concept, design, purchased used and refurbishing or construct stages. Spain has been successful selling its’Principe de Asturias’ layout to many navies, and China, Japan and India are creating a carrier construct capacity – in China’s case, even a nuclear powered platform for the new generation planes. The US F35D carrier version – a STVOL configuration – can only increase demand for carriers among’western’ countries.

Many strategists see the aircraft carrier as a keystone of military doctrine, regardless of the substantial concentration of power and investment (both political and financial) in what is an extremely visible and, arguably vulnerable target.

It spans 11 time zones – nearly halfway across the world. With a fleet of modern land-based aircraft and efficient missile technology, it may arguably project its power without the need for a massive carrier fleet, at least in the northern hemisphere.

A floating, self-propelled airbase, although not capable of managing large transport planes like the C130 Hercules. This definition is usually taken to include any boat capable of managing fixed wing fighter/bomber aircraft, of which there are many types.

Supercarrier: these are generally higher than 50,000 tons loaded displacement, usually nuclear powered, and able to handle fast jets

Fleet Carrier: mid size typically 20,000 tons upward, oil/steam, gas turbine as well as gas powered, the’average’ size in a country’s fleet.

Light Aircraft Carrier: smaller compared to the fleet carrier.

As can be seen, this method of classifying navy aircraft carriers is subjective to a country’s fleet configuration. The French might well explain the Charles de Gaulle as a supercarrier – steam catapults, nuclear powered, but is it really a supercarrier compared to, say, US aircraft carriers like the US Nimitz Class George W Bush, of almost 100,000 tons displacement and carrying well over 100 fixed wing aircraft?

Carrier Configurations

CATOBAR: catapult launch of fixed wing aircraft but detained recovery.

STOBAR: Short take off but detained recovery. Presently, these have been utilizing the UK Sea Harrier VTOL aircraft in STOVL mode with a’ski jump’ launch.

Much like STOBAR, but vertical landing. Less attractive on account of the excess fuel (equals less armament load) required for the landing stage, and flight deck damage issues because of its down led exhaust jet through landing.

Operational Capability Development takes a whole lot of money and time. Second-hand carriers and infrastructure requirements can be purchased or hired. A new branch of naval operations must be set up. This isn’t trivialA major job – training institutions need to be installed and managed, replenishment, logistics and repair operations need to be established, as an instance, and even an entire career structure for officers and ratings.

A nation must develop its strategic and strategic policies to efficiently operate and present its own carriers in keeping with its national strategic goals in a credible manner.

Even the fundamentals – setting the 24 x 7 operational tempo of conducting a carrier need to be developed, implemented and rehearsed exhaustively if the installation of a carrier force is to be credible – poor weather night launches and landing, crew rescue procedures, anti-submarine steps, re-arming and weapons handling, coordinated carrier protection – the list is extensive. Some nations cooperate in this respect. For example Brazil is helping China to develop its operational capacity in exchange for technological aid in the fields of nuclear power and defence electronics.

The future of this carrier is assured. The arrival of a new generation of STOVL aircraft, and the development of India and China to the severe carrier club (with Pakistan also making noises) means that prior to the mid 21st century, the company arms race will be quickening and world tonnage rising.

Britain is building larger carriers – the Queen Elizabeth Class supercarrier. These new UK aircraft carriers will be nearly 3 times the size of the preceding generation;’cast-off’ carriers are increasingly being purchased by smaller countries, so the operational global tonnage is likely to increase – average annual new construct tonnage is greater than scrappage; the US is building a new generation – The Gerald R Ford Class. Countries that have an operational aircraft carrier never relinquish that capacity.

Electromagnetic launch systems – easier, lighter, stronger than steam catapults are being designed. These will have the ability to launch unmanned aircraft at G forces that human pilots couldn’t tolerate. Aerial battles fought by unmanned airplanes flown by carrier-based (or even land-based) jocks via secure data connection are a real chance before the end of the century.

New carrier-busting missiles like the Chinese Dong Feng 21D (NATO CSS 5 Mod-4) will result in improved defensive technology developments.

Stamped Concrete

Stones, Ground, Texture, Construction

Concrete is not just used for building anymore. While providing a function, it can also function as a decorative enhancement for various kinds of structures, including flooring, patios, driveways, decks, porches, walls, paths, and much more. This artistic use of concrete is called”decorative concrete”, and is a technical project which needs an adept skill set, as well the correct inventory of materials and tools, for quality, long-lasting outcomes.

Turning standard concrete to decorative pavement is accomplished by altering the concrete during the pouring process, or after the concrete is finished curing.

Concrete stamping has gained popularity over the past 50 years, and may be utilised in a huge array of residential and industrial applications. And there are a lot more reasons to choose it for your next house remodel or upgrade! Keep on reading to find out more about impressed concrete and how it can benefit your premises.

The goals of concrete stamping is to create regular concrete resemble a decorative pattern, style, shape, design, texture, or colour. In actuality, this is one of the numerous advantages of stamped concrete.

Not only does stamped concrete deliver long-lasting luster and durability, it’s also quite cost-effective because it can be built to resemble a huge array of higher-end materials, such as wood, brick, stone, slate, bedrock, and much more. It may even be made to resemble things in nature, such as sea shells, leaves, fossils, and much more. The endless options makes it one of the most desirable and economic renovations and new building additions of the property owner.


It’s necessary to hire a professional home remodeling general contractor or firm for impressed concrete solutions. This is because it’s an extremely intricate and delicate project that needs hands-on expertise and extensive knowledge of cement sidewalk finishing and installation. There are several factors involved in such work, such as foundations, water drainage, floor leveling, reinforcement grids, concrete formula mixtures, and a lot more.

In terms of stamping concrete, the setup procedure generally requires the use of molds. Pre-made molds and stencils are pressed into concrete while the substance remains pliable (in plastic condition ). After the patterns and textures are implemented, the sidewalk can be finished with the addition of colour and then sealer. Color is added by using one or more of the following products: dry shakes, colour hardening agents, powder releases, liquid discharges, acid stains, and integral colours.

Impressed concrete offers a broad assortment of advantages in terms of price, functionality, appeal, and value. Here are some of the most notable benefits property owners are Delighted with:

Where Did Key Lime Pie Originate?

Key, Lime, Pie, Food, Dessert, Color

Key West Florida is famous for two things: the Ernest Hemingway house (with its 6 toed cats) and Key lime pie, named after limes which grow in the Florida keys. A favorite American dessert made with Key lime juice, sweetened condensed milk and egg yolks, the traditional”Conch version” uses the egg whites to make a meringue topping. Key limes are smaller, more tart and aromatic than the common limes we buy yearlong in grocery shops and grown abundantly in other areas of Florida and California. Key lime juice, unlike regular lime juice, is pale yellow, which, together with the egg yolk, produces the filling’s pale shade.

Appearing in the early 20th century the specific origins are unknown, but the first recorded mention of Key lime pie may have been produced by William Curry, a boat salvager and Key West’s first millionaire. Supposedly his cook,”Aunt Sally”, made the dish to get him. It seems his crews of sponge fishermen at sea didn’t have access to ovens but the first version allowed the creamy pie to be ready without baking. Early writings state that Aunt Sally’s variation called for a graham cracker crust and softly whipped cream.

Many cooks and bakers in Florida assert their recipe is the sole authentic version. Everyone does agree, however, that green food coloring is for amateurs, and a proper version should be pale yellow. Key limes (also called Mexican or West Indian limes) are the most common lime found throughout the world; the U.S. is the exclusion in preferring the larger Persian lime.

Both controversial versions center around crust and topping. Early pies probably did not even have a crust, but sailors vacillate between traditional pie crust and graham cracker. And then there is the topping. The two camps argue meringue vs. whipped cream. (Apparently these folks have a whole lot of time on their hands.) Contrary to popular belief, what makes the filling creamy isn’t cream whatsoever but sweetened condensed milk that’s thicker than evaporated milk and comes in a can, initially introduced by the Borden Dairy company in the late 1800s. It is possible that when the sponge divers had anything to do with the pie, they indeed had lots of canned eggs, milk and Key limes on board (and a good deal of sponges for cleanup ).

Although grown for centuries in Asian and South America, they didn’t make an appearance in the U.S. before the late 1800s. Which means foodie president Thomas Jefferson missed out entirely. (How he would have loved those pies!)

If you go to Key West, pie factories and bakeries abound, and you can literally eat your way from one end to the other, reveling in the different offerings and deciding for yourself which you like best. Additionally, there are stores which sell dozens of products improved with Key lime, such as moisturizers, potpourri, candles, soaps, candies and biscuits. Unfortunately for much of America, procuring authentic important limes is not always easy, and using regular limes just won’t do. Oh sure, you can purchase bottled juice which the locals would frown on, but for some it is much better than nothing.

Starting in 2013, the yearly Key Lime Festival is held over the July 4th weekend for a celebration of their favourite citrus not only as pie but in different foods, drinks, and an important portion of their. Clearly these aficionados take their pie very seriously and expect no less from anyone else. And by the way, don’t even think about using frozen topping. The whipped cream authorities will find you and have you arrested.

Proper Plants For Your Koi Pond

Now that your koi pond is finally finished, after all your hard work , now it’s time to think about what type of plants to choose to receive the water garden looking the way you would like.

You want it to look beautiful, obviously, but when picking your plants, bear in mind that these plants may also have the added value of bringing biological life to your koi pond. This helps maintain your pond in a natural manner.

The climate in your particular area is something to take into account. Certain plants will not survive in certain conditions, so it is important to do some research before going out and spending your hard-earned money. If you have a local dealer, then have a chat with them for information on which plants are best suited to your koi pond.

Lotus Plants
Lotus plants are always a popular choice for koi ponds, because of their simple beauty. A word of warning, though. Lotus plants such as temperatures above 65 deg. Fahrenheit, so you will need somewhere to house them during the cooler months. A greenhouse would be good, as lotus plants require dirt and a great deal of sunlight. You will need to plant them in about 2-3 feet of water during warmer weather, and indoors when it goes rancid.

Water Hyacinths
For those who have a busy lifestyle and can’t put enough time into maintaining your koi pond, then water hyacinths might be a fantastic choice. They’re a low-maintenance plant and quite pretty in appearance. They do not require soil or planting. You’ll need to anchor them down so that they don’t float throughout the pond randomly. Water hyacinths are also great for combating algae, Wildlife Removal and blanket weed.

1 word of caution about water hyacinths. They easily spread around, even outside the pond, so you must keep an eye on them regularly and trim them back. If allowed to spread, they may be extremely tricky to remove.

Underwater plants
Despite the fact that they aren’t seen, they have a practical use. They will fight against algae, put oxygen in the water and may be a source of food for your fish. Any good local pet shop or koi dealer will have bundles of these type of plants. The majority of these plants require no additional maintenance throughout the cold season, so once you put them in place, you do not have to worry about them. So, though they are hidden, they are doing a excellent job under the surface, which benefits not only you, but the people of your koi pond.

Choosing Coral Food

One of the tricky parts of raising live corals in a saltwater aquarium is supplying the ideal combinations of foods to keep the polyps healthy and alive. For many Bee Removal Orlando coral aquarists, feeding time supposed thawing out messy frozen foods and maintaining a schedule of feedings which range from brine shrimp and phyto into krill, also additions of amino and other components to keep the corals contented. However, with the arrival of Fauna Marin’s pre-made coral foods in North America, feeding time at the aquarium just got a good deal easier.

Why Feed Specialty Foods to Corals?

Owners of coral reefs have two main reasons to use specialty foods in their aquariums: to keep the coral alive and healthy, and also to bring out the stunning colors that are so much a part of the best coral reefs. If all goes well, the coral will also grow, further enhancing the overall aquarium setup.

Actual feeding of coral reefs is a two stage affair. First, you must attract the attention of the colony enough to get them to open their polyps. Then you must serve up a food which maintains their interest long enough to get them to eat. Pre-made coral foods, such as those provided by the German-based company, Fauna Marin, hand the coral reef aquarist everything he or she needs to maintain most corals, such as gorgonian and filter feeding coral, happy over the long term.

With Fauna Marin Ultra LPS collection, feeding some stony corals with polyps around 1/4 inch in diameter, like acans, can be as straightforward as sprinkling the medium-sized pellet throughout the coral. In this manner, the individual polyps don’t need to be target fed, since the colony is connected together by means of pathways and connective tissue, and all polyps in a coral colony benefit from the feed.

In actuality, Fauna Marin’s coral foods are highly concentrated, so some colonies may get along with feedings a couple of times weekly. With the larger concentration, the energy level produced by Fauna Marin coral food is a lot greater than the identical energy level made by normal fish meals. Additionally, you don’t need to keep frozen coral food in your freezer any more, nor do you deal with the mess of frozen food.

Fauna Marin Ultra LPS Grow and Color is a powdered food product, which may be reconstituted by mixing some water from the aquarium into the food powder, until it reaches a sticky consistency. There are warnings with Fauna Marin products to not inhale the powder, do not feed it to other pets or animals meant for human consumption, don’t swallow their products, and avoid contact of Fauna Marin foods with skin or eyes.

First of all, you want to apply a food into your coral reef your polyps respond to, and decent coral foods such as those made by Fauna Marin, excite the polyps to feed almost immediately. The size of the pellet also matters.

Another aspect of coral foods that is worth considering is the softness. Coral polyps are soft-bodied creatures, and you wish to purchase food for them that is soft and without sharp edges that may harm the corals. Fauna Marin’s food becomes sticky and soft once it reaches the water, so even partly open polyps benefit from the food.

Also important is to give your corals a mix of minerals and foods as close to their native environment as possible, and this is where Fauna Marin excels. This business mixes together doses of vitamin supplements, organic biopolymers, and trace elements to provide the corals what they enjoy best. Also included in Fauna Marin coral food are all the carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, fats, antioxidants, Omega-3 oils, and marine proteins required by a coral reef to keep health and decent color. Purchasers of Fauna Marin coral food products have reported polyps which extend out far beyond their usual distance after a feeding session.

The Betta Fish

So, you’re interested in purchasing a Betta fish or another tropical fish? What makes you think about the Betta?

Are you buying the Betta since you see them in small tiny round bowls and you believe this seems to be an easy fish to take home for a pet?

If that’s the only reason, I’d like you to stop right now and reevaluate your choice of pets. While most pet shops have the Betta in a very small bowl, in real life, most Bettas probably would love a bigger housing. After all, do you prefer to be stuck in a tiny bowl where you can practically touch the walls from where you are in the bowl? Do you want to be held captive in such a small place even if you did have the water to swim around in?

Have a look at the natural surroundings of any fish; take a fantastic look. You have probably never seen a fish being born or raised or living its whole life in a little Betta bowl, except in the pet stores.

The reason they are in these bowls is because they can not let the Betta in with certain other fish, especially not their own type of fish, the male Betta. They’re known as the”Siamese Fighting Fish” and that should give you a clue as to the personality of such fish.

Thus, let us face it. The actual reason that all those fish are in tiny bowls is because that’s the least expensive way that the fish shops can keep the fish. There are no filters, and no filtration cartridges to purchase when you use a very small bowl for a fish tank. The store wants you to feel that this fish-caring on the Betta is simple, easy and not expensive.

If the pet shops were made to give proper housing to Betta fish, they would need to provide each Betta a ten or twenty gallon fish tank. That would be too expensive, so all the shops house the Betta fish in tiny, glass bowls which are economical for the shops.

Personally, I had a Betta in a ten gallon fish tank and that Betta was the happiest fish ever. . Give your Betta a larger living space. You can put some plants in there and a few tiny decorations and you are all set for your new Betta’s environment.

When you are at the library, pick up a few books on tropical fish and get a book about Bettas but read with caution. The book will tell you how you can look after the Betta. It’ll tell you where to find Bettas and Betta supplies.

Another suggestion:

Before you purchase your Betta, or before you buy any fish at all, do the smart thing and purchase all you need for the fish before you even look at fish. The idea is to get the setup all fit into the spot where you will keep it in your home or office. Set up the tank, the water, the filter, and any decorative things you want in the tank, and then let the filter run for a day or two before you go to purchase the fish.

Consider putting in a few live plants aside from the plastic ones you might have chosen. Mixing both plastic and live plants in an aquarium can give it a most interesting appearance.

Consider purchasing a larger filter than necessary, just because. Most times, people look for small, inexpensive set ups for fish.

Personally, for myself, I had always opted for just a little bit larger. Sure you are starting out with one fish from now or a year from now, you just might have a whole community of fish living in that same tank. If you think bigger at the beginning, that saves you time, money and trouble later on in your hobby advancement.


Do your research if you’re contemplating raising fish. Find out which fish are friendly and which are very aggressive. There’s been more than one hobbyist who has brought home a predator fish only to find her or his other fish dead after a day or so.

And then there are those fish who just prefer to nibble on each other. And they will nibble and nibble till they can’t nibble anymore. So you might do a lot of research on Angel Fish before purchasing them.

If you want to breed fish and you are a real beginning, the Guppy might be the perfect fish for you to begin with. But bear in mind, that larger Guppy will most likely attempt to eat all the infants so have another tank prepared for the baby fish OR get one of those divider particles for your tank and you can divide almost any tank into two separate tanks. When you look in the fish pet shops or aquariums, you’ll see that they also make small side tanks that hang off the tops of the larger aquariums. They will catch the fish, but them in that smaller tank and then carry the tank into the register for you to buy your fish. So, there are many options when you are thinking about purchasing or raising fish.


Buy the recommended foods. And in case you’re able to find a no frills brand that will work also.

You might not need to do this but I will share a secret with you. I did run out of fish food one day, long ago, in winter and that I didn’t live near a pet shop. I went to the cabinet and took out the box of Cheerios and proceeded to crush the Cheerios into a nice grain.

Some fish love live food. And the pet stores will sell live food for the reptiles and for some fish. They mostly always have a feeding tank, a massive tank, that has feeder fish in it. I am just sharing ideas here.

Understanding How Turtles Breath

Most vertebrates have a elastic rib cage that allows the lungs to expand and contract during breathing. Not so the turtles, who long ago traded away elastic ribs in favor of a fixed, protective shell. Various species of turtles have evolved different way of drawing air into their lungs. Turtles have also developed indirect ways of getting oxygen during times when they’re sealed from contact with the air, as when hibernating or remaining underwater.

In turtles, the lungs lie just beneath the carapace and over the other internal organs. The upper surface of the lungs attaches to the carapace itself, while the lower portion is joined to the viscera (heart, liver, stomach, and intestinal tract) by a skin of connective tissue called diaphragmaticus. The viscera themselves can also be contained within a membrane that attaches to the diaphragmaticus. Groups of muscles rhythmically change the volume of the abdominal cavity. One pair of muscles moves the viscera upward, pushing air from the lungs.

When turtles walk around, the motions of the forelimbs promote the compression and suction activities that encircle the lungs. A turtle can change its lung volume by simply drawing its limbs inward, then extending them outward again: Turtles floating on top of the water often can be seen moving their legs in and out, which helps them breathe. A turtle pulled back within its shell has no room in its lungs for air. At these and sometimes, turtles use various approaches to obtain oxygen.

Raising and lowering the hyoid apparatus causes a turtle’s neck to grow and drop, pulling in air. (Along with boosting ventilation, this air movement allows a turtle to better use its sense of smell.) To process oxygen rich water, a soft shell uses its hyoid apparatus to repeatedly fill and empty its throat in a process known as buccopharyngeal breathing. When submerged, a soft shell typically pumps water in and out about sixteen times per minute. Turtles that hibernate underwater also exchange gases through the throat lining, cycling the water inside the throat cavity several times each minute. Many turtles practice this process of breathing, and a few turtles even take in oxygen through the cloaca.

Lots of the details of turtles breathing remain unidentified. What is clear however is that different kinds of turtles have evolved different procedures of fulfilling their oxygen needs. Through evolution, they have gotten very good at obtaining this critical gas. As Ronald Orenstein notes in Turtles, Tortoises, and Terrapins: Survivors in Armor, turtles seem able to breathe”with the least amount of effort no matter what their circumstances.”